Human Nutrition final Exam

Human Nutrition final Exam

Order Description

Final Exam:
There are four parts :
Part A:
http://moodle.une.edu.au/mod/quiz/view.php?id=749480

Part B:
http://moodle.une.edu.au/mod/quiz/view.php?id=749481

Part C:
http://moodle.une.edu.au/mod/quiz/view.php?id=749482

Part D :
http://moodle.une.edu.au/mod/quiz/view.php?id=749483

This exam has 15 MC questions to be completed in 15 minutes. It is identical in style to the quizzes you have been doing over the trimester. However you will have only one attempt and must do it on the day of opening.

Attempts allowed: 1

The quiz will not be available until Thursday, 28 May 2015, 12:05 AM

This quiz will close at Thursday, 28 May 2015, 11:45 PM

Time limit: 15 mins

The Glycemic Index (GI) is a useful metric but its use as a practical measure to assess diet is controversial. Which of the following is nota reason for this?

The GI varies
Time of day
Amylose is a component of starch and is made up of linear chains of which of the following sugars?
Glucose
Regulation of energy balance is largely controlled by the ___________, which receives sensory input from the ____________.
hypothalamus, nervous & endocrine systems
Which of the following sugars is largely digested in the Large intestine (bowel)?
Lactose
Omega-3 and Omega-6 are the only essential polyunsaturated fatty acids. They are regarded as essential because
The body cannot make them
You are a margarine manufacturer and have a product which contains 60% saturated fats and 40% polyunsaturated fats you would be able to label this product as polyunsaturated margarine?
false
Which of the following common nutrients is often found to be consumed in inadequate amounts?
Folate
Together with a negative energy balance, the BMR can ____
decrease up to 20%
The effect of our “genes” on nutrition is generally likely to be a complex interaction between genes and the environment in whichwe live. However some nutritional disorders are due to major disruptions of genes.
Phenylketonuria (PKU) is due to a mutation in an enzyme which converts phenylalanine into which of the following amino acids?
tyrosine
Which of the following amino acids is hydrolysed to the reform ornithine and urea?
Arginine
Which of the following amino acids are non-essential?
Alanine
Which of the following does not directly contribute to the basal metaobolic rate (BMR)?
proportion of muscle to lipid tissue
An omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid is one where the first double bond is how many carbons away from the methyl end of the chain:
3
The absorptive capacity of the bowel for amino acids has to be greatly in excess of the dietary intake, because _______.
there is a considerable net daily secretion of proteins into the bowel
Non starch polysaccharides (NSP) are more commonly known as:
fibre
the recommended daily intake of protein for an average adult?
0.44 g protein/kg
Which of the following would not be classed as a micronutrient?
Glucose
What would happen if the satiety centre of the hypothalamus was destroyed?
Obesity
What would happen if the feeding centre of the hypothalamus was destroyed?
Starvation
There is considerable evidence that our “genes” can influence our response to diet and diet choices. Which of the following statements reflects evidence for genetic influences on nutrition?
Familial clustering of obesity in families
Which of the following hormones decrease appetite?
leptin
Which one of the following does not contribute to the biological activity of proteins?
amino group (H2N)
Even though cholesterol the starting material for many essential compound such as Vitamin D and steroid hormones it is not regarded as essential. This is because:
The human body can manufacture it
Both animals and plants store carbohydrates. The form used by animals is:-
Glycogen
The major nutritional role of carbohydrates is as a good source of energy. Approximately how many kilocalories are there per gram?
4
Short chain fatty acids are most likely to be found in which of the following foods?
dairy products
Both protein synthesis and protein degradation consume approximately _____ kJ/g of protein?
4
Which of the following is NOT correct?
Solanine in excessive amounts can improve neurological disorders
In a physiological state of injury or trauma, there is a shift in the pattern of protein synthesis and degradation due to the influential presence of cytokines.Which of the following is NOT correct?
In the liver there is an increase in the synthesis of albumin
The total amount of energy liberated by food if it were combusted in oxygen is referred to as?
gross energy
Direct calorimetry directly measures _______ from the subject?
heat loss
You conduct an experiment on a subject using the ventilated hood indirect calorimeter. Your record the CO2 production and O2 consumption and determine the respiratory quotient reading to be 0.825.
What does this indicate
mixture of carbohydrate and lipid oxidation
Protein turnover is influenced by the hormonal state of the body.
Which is the following is NOT correct?
Growth hormone has a catabolic effect on protein degradation
Which of the following energy requirements does not contribute to diet-induced thermogenesis?
metabolism
An essential nutrient is one which
Is not synthesised in the body
The indirect calorimetry Douglas Bag method measures energy expenditure of a subject.
Which of the following does not apply to this meathod?
Experimental length up to 24 hours
Indirect measures of lean body mass include
weight record
Of the macronutrients, which one most influences the amount of digestible energy?
protein
What is the subunit of proteins?
amino acids
Most babies are not lactose intolerant, but after we are weaned some people lose the ability to digest lactose. This is due to a decline in the production of which of the following?
lactase
A deficiency in Thiamin can lead to …….
Wernike-Korsakoff syndrome
Which of the following is not accurate about folate?
5-methyl THF cooperates with vitamin A to produce methionine and THF
What is the main buffer system in the body
bicarbonate
Which of the following is NOT correct?
N-acetylglucosamine promotes the growth of pathogenic bifidobacteria in our large intestine
Which of the following is NOT correct
Freezing processes result in increased enzyme function, thus decreasing bacterial growth
deficiency of vitamin D in children can lead to….
Rickets
Which of the following is NOT correct?
Loss of bone exists if the actions of osteoblasts is greater than osteoclasts
Which of the following is the correct order of the development of iron deficiency anaemia?
iron stores deplete ? RBC production can still occur ? iron stores exhausted ? circulatory iron decreases ? compromised erthropoiesis ? anaemia
Which of the following is NOT correct?
Haem and non-haem iron have the same uptake pathway into mucosal cells of the GIT
Which of the following compensatory adjustments would occur in response to the ingestion of a large volume of water?
Decreased secretion of aldosterone
Total daily energy intake of fats & oils is?
20-30%
Select the correct statement about renal mechanisms of acid-base balance
kidney cells are able to synthesise bicarbonate ions
Bone metabolism can be measured by marker concentrations. Which of the following is a marker representing the function of osteoblasts?
Alkaline phosphatase
A deficiency in riboflavin can lead to
Cheilosis
A deficiency in Vitamin A can lead to
Bitôts spots
Which of the following would not be classed as a macronutrient?
Vitamin D
A falling blood pH and a rising partial pressure of carbon dioxide due to pneumonia or emphysema indicates:
respiratory acidosis
Which one of the following is NOT correct?
Bioavailability of vitamins is greater cereals than meats
Which neutral amino acid containing 2 amide-groups plays an important role in the ammonia buffer system?
Glutamine
Which of the following phytochemicals are responsible for the persistant flavours of herbs & spices?
Phenolics
Which of the following is correct?
Eggs contains the natural antioxidant lutein
Calcium stores in bone are tightly regulated by hormones. A decrease in circulating blood calcium leads to an incrase in parathyroid hormone. Which of the following is NOT due to an increase in PTH?
Reabsorption of P increases in the kidney
A deficiency in niacin can lead to
Pellagra
Which cation is present at the highest concentration inside cells under normal conditions?
potassium
Which of the following statement is NOT correct?
Seeds are high in vitamin C
Which of the following is NOT associated with iron overload?
anaemia
Which of the following types of people are not vulnerable to calcium deprevation?
People who cant absorb tetracyclines efficiently
Atrial natriuretic peptide is a hormone that is made in the atria of the heart. The influence of this hormone is to:
reduce blood pressure by inhibiting sodium and water reabsorption
Which of the following is NOT correct?
An increase in oestrogen during menopause is responsible for the 1-2% loss of bone over the 5-10 year period
A deficiency in Vitamin B12 can lead to
Pernicous anaemia
Which two organs play the most important roles in controlling the body’s pH
Kidney and lungs
Which of the following is incorrect with regards to Vitamin A?
Our ability to see at night involves the interconversion between 9-cis retinoic acid and all-trans-retinal
What is the function of oesteoclast?
to excavate old worn bone
Which of the following statements is NOT correct?
Processing dried fruit results in an increased bioavailability of vitamin C
which is not correct?
Parboiling rice prior to milling promotes the inward migration of lipid-soluble vitamins to the endosperm.
The composition of breast milk will NOT be influenced by:
paternal dietary intake
The energy content of food is usually measured using:
bomb calorimetry
For an athlete in competition, which of the following statements should the athlete NOT be aiming for, with respect to their nutritional requirements?
During a prolonged competition program, achieve their nutritional goals by compromising their overall energy goals
What are the health benefit claims made for Yogurt?
Reduce diarrhoea, enhance immunity and reduce risk of early atopic disease
Which endogenous substrate is the most important when considering the fuel for muscles?
Muscle glycogen
All of the following are important procedures involved in describing foods prior to analysis of nutrient content except one. Which is the exception?
Cost of buying food at the local supermarket
Which organ in human is most metabolically active in regards to microflora and its activities?
large intestine
Which of the following sugars is largely digested in the Large intestine (bowel)?
lactose
Which of the following sugars is largely digested in the Large intestine (bowel)?
Measurement of energy intake using food diaries
If we continue to use the world’s resources at out current rate, how many planets will be required by 2030 to feed, clothe and maintain our existing lifestyles?
two
What is the fat content of colostrum?
2.6 g/100ml
Energy for muscle contraction is provided by the breakdown of:
ATP
Which of the following meals would consume the most fossil fuels during production?
A medium-rare T-bone steak with roasted fresh vegetables
Which of the following methods is usually used to calculate the amount of carbohydrates in a food
Extract in aqueous alcohol then measure by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)
What is considered the ideal pre-event meal?
Carbohydrate rich, low-fat meal
An adult with a BMI of 33 kg / m2 would be considered:
obese
Energy availability is defined as
energy intake minus the energy cost of training
Maternal iron deficiency anaemia may increase the risk of:
preterm delivery
Dysbiosis is a state in which
there is change in metabolic activity of microbiota
The efficiency of milk production is determined as:
the ratio of milk energy and the total energy cost of lactation
The placenta is the organ responsible for nutrient exchange between the mother and foetus, and is influenced by
expanding uteroplacental blood flow
A non-digestible carbohydrate /any ingredient that selectively stimulates growth of beneficial bacteria which improves host health is known as
Prebiotics
Which of the following does not fit the selection criteria for Probiotics?
Pathogenic and non-toxic bacteria
What supplements help to minimise the occurrence of neural tube defects?
folic acid
Which of the following is NOT included as a sports supplement?
caffeine
Nutritional status can be described as:
The state of health produced by the balance between nutrient intakes and nutrient needs
Which of the following is not a benefit of consuming fish & seafood?
Reduces risk of diabetes
The PMS ratio is used in relation to distribution of which class of nutrients in food?
fats
What is the range in centimetres that indicates mild undernutriton when measuring arm circumference in children under 5-years-old?
Over 12.5 cm and under 13.5 cm
Which nutrient class is the cause of the greatest source of variation when measuring the energy content of different foods?
Carbohydrates
It is estimated that the total energy cost of pregnancy for a woman who gains 12kg weight is 325 MJ. What is the recommended extra energy requirement in trimester 2 and trimester 3?
T2= 1.5 MJ/day; T3=1.9 MJ/day
Commercially, what is a functional food?
A branded food that claims explicitly or implicitly to improve human health or wellbeing
Which of the following is a non-essential food component that is thought to exert physiological effects and is often listed in the appendices for food composition tables?
Select one:
flavoniods
Of the various population based and individual methods of dietary assessment which involves marking a sheet to indicate the number of times a certain food stuff is consumed over a given period
Food frequency questionnaire
Maturation of an atherosclerotic plaque involves migration of which type of cells from the tunica media to the tunica intima?
smooth muscle
Magnesium is the second most abundant cation in cells after potassium, thus a dietary deficiency is not likely in people consuming a well balanced diet.
Which of the following clinical conditions is not likely to cause magnesium deprivation?
hypercalcaemic patients
Hyperhomocysteinaemia is thought to cause all of the following pathogenic mechanisms except one. Which is the exception?
Increased dysregulation of mocardial contracile elements
Which class of nutrients in foods is usually measured by microbiological methods
vitamins
Body Mass Index or BMI is useful in determining the degree of obesity, but it has limitations. In which of the following people might its use to determine if somebody was overweight not be very useful?
body builder
Which of the following is a diagnostic criterion for anorexia nervosa in DSM-IV-TR?
A refusal to maintain a minimal body weight
A pathological fear of gaining weight
A distorted body image in which, even when clearly emaciated, sufferers continue to insist they are overweight
all of the above
A key diagnostic criterion for Anorexia Nervosa is the refusal to maintain a body weight at which of the following thresholds?
85%
Which of the following pieces of advice would a person trying to reduce their impact on the environment be most likely to follow?
only buy items that have been locally sourced
Which of the following is an anthropometric method used to assess nutritional status?
Measurement of the circumference of the lower limb
Which of the following is NOT correct with regards to the nutritional requirements during pregnancy?
The requirement of iron remain constant during gestation
Which one of the following food additives is best avoided?
The heavy metal, cadmium
Of all the different methods of dietary assessment which is considered to be the most valid?
biomarkers
In spite of numerous in vitro and animal studies demonstrating favourable results clinical trials have consistently failed to show a reduction in cardiovascular risk with increased consumption of which dietary antioxidant?
vitamin e
Given that obese women are commonly infertile, what management measures can be taken to see the return of ovulation, menstruation and fertility?
Weight reduction of 5-10% of their body weight
A recent meta-analysis by Siri-Tarino et al concluded that there was insufficient evidence to link increased consumption of a particular food with an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. To which particular food were they referring to?
saturated fat
Two-thirds (2/3) of the calcium in the foetus is deposited during the last how many weeks of gestation?
10 weeks
Which of the following dietary patterns would be considered to be the most cardioprotective?
Preferential use of unmodified vegetable oils
Which of the following is false regarding studies of the relationship between diet and cardiovascular disease?
Studies of the link between diet and cardiovascular disease have been able to pinpoint direct causal relationships
Which of the following foodborne infections is the major cause of death
Listeria monocytogenes
Which organelle in a heart cell can be a signficant source of reactive oxygen species during ischaemic insults?
mitochondria
Ingestion of 1g per day of which mineral is thought to have only a trivial lowering effect on blood pressure?
calcium
The prospective cohort studies of health professionals conducted by the Harvard group have identified various dietary associations with cardiovascular disease. From these studies, which of the following foods has been identified as increasing risk?
coffee
At what stage during the production of 1kg of rice is there likely to be the greatest loss through wastage?
thrown away by consumer
Babies born underweight either because they are premature or because of inter uterine growth restriction (IUGR) are at higher risk of developing which of the following?
metabolic syndrome
Which of the following products contains the most embedded water?
150g hamburger
If you were going to cook a piece of fish for dinner which of the following methods of cooking is more likely to increase your risk of cancer?
grilling
There is some evidence for a link between food and adult cancers. In the case of colorectal cancer which of the following foods appears to increase the risk?
red meat
As we get older it becomes increasingly important to maintain a healthy diet. It is recommended that energy intake decrease with every decade over 50. What is the size of the decrease recommended?
5%
Probiotics can increase the host immunity to intestinal pathogens such as
Clostridium difficile
If a persons energy intake over 24 hours continually exceeds the amount of energy expended during the same time period what are the consequences?
stored as fat
An often overlooked factor involved in obesity is our lifestyle choices. For example most homes today are built with a building code that demands wall and ceiling insulation resulting in thermoneutral homes. The long term effects of this on the human body which can add to overweight are:
Overall decrease in metabolic rate
The major goal of the treatment of Bulimia Nervosa patients is to:
Eliminate binge eating and purging habits
If blood sample taken from a 20 year old women suffering from Anorexia Nervosa is analysed for various hormones which of the following is likely to be found?
low levels of leptin
Which of the following is true?
An energy surplus maybe needed to promote optimal gain in body mass for athletes of weight sports
On a typical day in a temperate region which route is responsible for the loss of the greatest amount of water from the body
urination
According to the survey undertaken by UNICEF in 2008 which country showed the higest rate of wasting in children under 5-years-old?
india
One of the long-term benefits of breast feeding appears to be a decreased risk of:
type 1 diabetes
Which of the following risk factors for the development of cardiovascular disease is
considered non-modifiable?
male gender
The demand that an individual places upon natural resources is best represented by
their:
ecological footprint
If a subject had an increased plasma pH and a decreased arterial concentration of
carbon dioxide, what would the homeostatic adjustments be?
Select one:
a decrease in acid excretion by the kidneys

Question 1
Correct
Mark 1.00 out of 1.00
Flag question
Question text
You conduct an experiment on a subject using the ventilated hood indirect calorimeter.  Your record the CO2 production and O2 consumption and determine the respiratory quotient reading to be 0.825.
What does this indicate?
Select one:
a. Protein oxidation
b. A mixture of carbohydrate and lipid oxidation
c. A mixture of carbohydrate & protein oxidation
d. Carbohydrate oxidation
e. Lipid oxidation
Question 2
Correct
Mark 1.00 out of 1.00
Flag question
Question text
Select the correct statement about renal mechanisms of acid-base balance
Select one:
a. excreted hydrogen ions are unbound in the filtrate
b. the kidneys are not able to excrete phosphoric acid
c. the heamoglobin buffer system is the most important extracellular buffering system in the kidneys
d. the kidneys are the most important organ for eliminating all bicarbonate ions
e. kidney cells are able to synthesise bicarbonate ions
Question 3
Correct
Mark 1.00 out of 1.00
Flag question
Question text
Indirect measures of lean body mass include:
Select one:
a. fat-fold thickness
b. total body potassium
c. bioelectrical impedance
d. weight record
e. assessment of total body water
Question 4
Correct
Mark 1.00 out of 1.00
Flag question
Question text
If a subject had an increased plasma pH and a decreased arterial concentration of carbon dioxide, what would the homeostatic adjustments be?
Select one:
a. Hyperventilation
b. Hyperventilation and increased acid excretion
c. an increase in acid excretion at the kidneys
d. a decrease in acid excretion by the kidneys
e. Hypoventilation
Question 5
Correct
Mark 1.00 out of 1.00
Flag question
Question text
Short chain fatty acids are most likely to be found in which of the following foods?
Select one:
a. Nuts
b. Dairy products
c. Cabbage
d. Fish
e. Meat
Question 6
Incorrect
Mark 0.00 out of 1.00
Flag question
Question text
Which of the following statements is NOT correct?
Select one:
a. Malic acid and Benzoic acid contribute to fruit tasting sour.
b. Fruit are the sweet ripened ovaries of the plants
c. The process of juicing fruits results in lower fibre content
d. Processing dried fruit results in an increased bioavailability of vitamin C
e. Fruit are low in sodium
Question 7
Correct
Mark 1.00 out of 1.00
Flag question
Question text
Which of the following types of people are not vulnerable to calcium deprevation?
Select one:
a. People who cant absorb tetracyclines efficiently
b. People who are taking corticosteroid medications
c. Malabsorption syndrome
d. Pregnant and lactating women
e. Elderly people
Question 8
Correct
Mark 1.00 out of 1.00
Flag question
Question text
A falling blood pH and a rising partial pressure of carbon dioxide due to pneumonia or emphysema indicates:
Select one:
a. metabolic alkalosis
b. respiratory alkalosis
c. metabolic acidosis
d. consumption of too much citrus fruit
e. respiratory acidosis
Question 9
Correct
Mark 1.00 out of 1.00
Flag question
Question text
A deficiency in riboflavin can lead to
Select one:
a. Cheilosis
b. Bitôts spots
c. Pellagra
d. Pernicous anaemia
e. Wernike-Korsakoff syndrome
Question 10
Correct
Mark 1.00 out of 1.00
Flag question
Question text
Which of the following statements is NOT correct?
Select one:
a. The insoluble fibre of legumes can ferment in the gut, resulting in abdominal discomfort and flatulence if the anti-nutrients are not removed.
b. Parboiling rice prior to milling promotes the inward migration of lipid-soluble vitamins to the endosperm.
c. Golden rice is genetically modified rice to include ß-carotene.
d. Millet is a group of cereals that includes Sorghum.
e. When cooking with maize, lime helps to increase the bioavailability of niacin.

Order a unique copy of this paper
(550 words)

Approximate price: $22

Basic features
  • Free title page and bibliography
  • Unlimited revisions
  • Plagiarism-free guarantee
  • Money-back guarantee
  • 24/7 support
On-demand options
  • Writer’s samples
  • Part-by-part delivery
  • Overnight delivery
  • Copies of used sources
  • Expert Proofreading
Paper format
  • 275 words per page
  • 12 pt Arial/Times New Roman
  • Double line spacing
  • Any citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard)

Our guarantees

Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.

Money-back guarantee

You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.

Read more

Zero-plagiarism guarantee

Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.

Read more

Free-revision policy

Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.

Read more

Privacy policy

Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.

Read more

Fair-cooperation guarantee

By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.

Read more

Calculate the price of your order

550 words
We'll send you the first draft for approval by September 11, 2018 at 10:52 AM
Total price:
$26
The price is based on these factors:
Academic level
Number of pages
Urgency

Order your essay today and save 7% with the discount code RBEST7